Knowledge About Ottoman

1. Departure from Europe of ottoman Judah traveled from one Jewish community to another throughout Poland, urging repentance, asceticism, physical mortifications, and calling for aliyah.

In 1697, he and 31 families of his followers left for Moravia and made a stop at Nikolsburg. Judah spent a year traveling throughout Germany and Moravia gaining followers. Many joined the group, influenced by his fervor. By the time the whole group gathered in Italy, they numbered about 1,500.

Almost a third of the pilgrims died of hardships and illnesses during the trip. On the way, they contracted debts, and in exchange for permission to enter the Ottoman Empire they were forced to give the Turkish authorities financial guarantees in the name of Jerusalem's Jewish community. ------ 2. Demographics of ottoman In 1455, the sanjak had 170 timars, out of which 27 were in the hands of Christians.

Ottoman sources emphasize that a wave of Vlachs settled in the Sanjak of Smederevo and a large part of the Sanjak of Kruevac and Sanjak of Vidin. After the Ottomans conquered territories in Pannonian Plain many families from the central Balkans move to that area which affected Vlach population of Sanjak of Kruevac and Smederevo who lost their earlier privileges. From the beginning of 16th century, the Muslim population in Kruevac, Prokuplje and Leskovac made up 68% of the total population while until the end of the century it increased to almost 85%. ------ 3. The Plot of ottoman The "plan of assassination was an elaborate and carefully considered one". Aziz had drawn up four plans to carry out the assassination, the first, was to kill him at the Mosul Rest House,

the second, at his brother's house, the third, by an attack on Bakr's car on his way to Tel-Kutchuk and finally the master plan at the Military club where it was planned to entertain Bakr in the evening of the day of his arrival. Aziz Yamulki, then president of the club, was to give a secret signal and the assassination was to take place when the lights were to be put out. ------ 4. Charles de Ferriol of ottoman Charles de Ferriol (16521722) was a French ambassador sent by Louis XIV to the Ottoman Empire from 1692 to 1711, during the rule of Sultan Ahmed III.

A painting by Jean-Baptiste van Mour, who had accompanied him on his mission to Constantinople, shows his reception by the Sultan.

Ferriol is also known as the man who brought to France the epistolary writer Charlotte Ass, a Circassian slave he had bought in Constantinople. His alleged attempts to gain sexual favours from her, never confirmed by Ass herself, became the subject of numerous books and biographies, notably the Abb Prvost's Histoire dune Grecque moderne (1740). ------ 5. Personal life of ottoman art In 1943, Babington Smith married Jean Mary, daughter of Admiral Hon. Sir Herbert Meade-Fetherstonhaugh and granddaughter of Admiral of the Fleet Richard Meade, 4th Earl of Clanwilliam. They had one son, Alan (born 1946); and two daughters, Louisa (born 1944), wife of James Richard Macfarlane, Coldstream Guards; and Susan (born 1950), wife of John Henry Hemming.

Babington Smith never officially retired, but in later years he suffered from crippling arthritis and was further disabled by a car accident. He died in London in 1984, aged 83.

In 1990, his widow was raised to the rank of an earl's daughter by royal warrant, entitled to be styled as Lady Jean Babington Smith. She died 22 November 2001. ------ 6. Francesco Antonio Bertucci of ottoman Francesco Antonio Bertucci (Croatian: Franjo Antun Brtuevi, fl. 1595), was a Dalmatian Capuchin and Knight Hospitaller. of disputed origin who served as the titular prior of the commandry of the Order at the monastery located in Vrana, a town in present-day Croatia. He is known for his remarkably consistent efforts to turn Habsburg-Ottoman Long War into crusade of Christian alliance against the Ottomans.

Originally from the town of Hvar, Bertucci was a relative of the Dalmatian poets Jerolim (Gerolamo) and Hortenzije Brtuevi (Ortensio Bertucci).

Bertucci was a member of the Holy League of Pope Clement VIII.

In 1592 Bertucci was in Rome where he received Pope's order to catch and kill Marco Sciarra, the leader of rebels, which he did in April 1593. ------ 7. Architecture of ottoman The principal entrance to the mosque is through a flight of 23 steps. At the entrance, there is an ornamented portico, which is supported by four black-veined marble columns. Inside the mosque, there are arcades built with white marble columns. The beauty of the mosque's chambers, minarets and ceilings are accentuated by the distinctly Moorish plaster work. The mosque overlooks the public square in the Casbah, with the sea in front; it has two octagonal minarets flanking the entrance, with Byzantine and Moorish design and decorations. Many of the white marble columns belong to the original mosque. There is a tomb with the remains of San Geronimo enshrined in one of the chambers in the mosque. ------ 8. Seltin mosques of ottoman Seltin mosques, (Seltin means in Arabic "Sultans") by the usual definition, are mosques commissioned by a sultan who personally led a military campaign. They are large mosques with several minarets. Fatih and Sleymaniye are typical examples. However, this definition does not exactly cover the concept. Beginning by the 17th century, most sultans preferred to stay in the capital rather than campaigning. Ahmet I (reigned 16031617), who was a non-campaigning sultan, commissioned the Blue Mosques, one of the greatest mosques which had 6 minarets. This mosque is also considered a seltin mosque.

Most of the mosques were commissioned by the sultans. But some mosques were commissioned by the other members of the dynasty; usually the mothers of sultans. ------ 9. Political relations of ottoman Malta is represented in Turkey through its embassy in Ankara. Malta and its consulategeneral in Istanbul. Turkey is represented in Malta through its embassy in Valletta. Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Union for the Mediterranean. Also Malta is a European Union member since May 1, 2004 and Turkey is a candidate. These recent developments have helped to formalise diplomatic relations between the two countries.

An Agreement of Mutual Promotion and Protection of Investments and a Memorandum of Understanding on the Establishment of the Political Consultative Mechanism between the two countries was signed in October 2003 in Antalya. ------ 10. Background of ottoman The island of Crete was a part of the Ottoman Empire, but had a predominantly Christian, Greek-speaking population, which had rebelled several times to achieve union with Greece. During one such revolt, on 2 February 1897 Greek troops landed in Crete to annex the island. This led to the outbreak of the so-called 30 Days' War between the Ottoman Empire and Greece. It was fought mainly in Thessaly and Epirus. In Thessaly, the superior Ottoman army commanded by Edhem Pasha defeated the Greeks and captured much territory. Greece sued for peace and the Great Powers of Europe intervened to force the Ottoman government to return the majority of the lands occupied during the war, and to grant autonomy for Crete. ------ 11. tefan IX Toma of ottoman Stefan Toma IX (or II), (? after 1623) of Moldavia was Prince of Moldavia for two reigns, in 16111615 and in 16211623. His reigns were concurrent with the period of Romanian and Eastern European history known as the Moldavian Magnate Wars, a long conflict in the early modern states of Moldavia, Wallachia, and Transylvania, in which the Moldavian state was alternatively influenced by the Austrian Habsburgs, the Ottoman Empire, and the PolishLithuanian Commonwealth. He was placed on the throne of Moldavia in 1611 following the deposition of the preceding Prince, Constantin Movila by the Ottomans, in the same year as Radu Mihnea was placed on the throne of neighboring Wallachia. ------ 12. Dndar Bey of ottoman Dndar Bey was the youngest son of the Kayi Bey Suleyman Shah and a brother of Erturul. He was the uncle of Osman I, the founder of Ottoman Empire.

When his brother Erturul Bey died in 1281, leadership/chief beyship of the Kay tribe transferred over to Erturul's son, later known as the founder of the Ottoman Empire. When Osman I decided to attack a small Greek island, Dundar rebelled because he thought it would destroy the tribe. The circumstances surrounding his death are, like many other details of his ill documented life; disputed. Historical sources disagree on whether or not he was executed by Osman I. ------ 13. Al-Hijaz, Damascus of ottoman Al-Hijaz (Arabic: ) is a neighborhood and district of the Qanawat municipality of Damascus, Syria. It had a population of 5,572 in the 2004 census. The neighborhood was founded during the early 20th century, during the last years of Ottoman rule in Syria. It was built around the Hijaz Railway station in the city, which was founded in 1913. Between 1914 and 1916, the Ottoman governor of Damascus, Jamal Pasha, commissioned the construction of Shari'a an-Naser (Victory Street) in the neighborhood, which ran from the railway station to the Souq al-Hamidiyya bazaar, parallel to Marjeh Square and the Barada River. Several mosques and residences were demolished to make way for the monumental road.

. ------ 14. elebi Ismail Pasha of ottoman elebi Ismail Pasha (died November or December 1702) was an Ottoman statesman who held various administrative roles in his career as a high-level official in the Ottoman government.

He began his career as a soldier in the Janissary corps of the Ottoman army. He eventually became the agha (head) of the Janissaries in July or August 1692, holding the position until the end of that year or the next year (1693). He was described as "tall and handsome" and could not read or write.

Ismail Pasha's was the Ottoman governor of:

Rumelia Eyalet (1685?)

Sidon Eyalet (?1689/90)

Karaman Eyalet (1689/90 1691/92)

Anatolia Eyalet (1691/92)

Damascus Eyalet (16921693)

Crete Eyalet (16931695)

Egypt Eyalet (Oct. 1695 Sep. 1697)

Baghdad Eyalet (Oct./Nov. 1697 1699)

Van Eyalet (16991701) ------ 15. Pedagogic career of ottoman art Biram founded the Hebrew Reali School in Haifa in 1913 and was appointed its first principal, but a few months later, World War I broke out, and Biram was drafted by the German army and stationed in Afula. In 1919, he returned to school.

As part of Biram's philosophy of education, in 1937 he implemented compulsory Hagam training for girls in the Hebrew Reali School in Haifa, laying the foundation for recruitment of women in the Haganah, and later the Israel Defense Forces.

In 1948, he resigned his post as principal, and on his 75th birthday, he authored a collection of essays on the Bible. Altogether, he wrote about 50 publications in Hebrew, German, English, and Arabic. Biram died in Haifa in 1967. ------ 16. The Ottoman Law of Family Rights The Ottoman Law of Family Rights is a new codification in Ottoman law that emerged in 1917. This law remained legitimate in Jordan until the year of 1951, and Syria in 1949. It is still valid for Muslim citizens of Israel and Lebanon. This law reestablished family law, specifically in regards to marriage and divorce, children and inheritance, and men and women's roles. One of the main reasons for the creation of the Ottoman Law of Family Rights and a reform of family laws in the Ottoman Empire, was to give women better access to divorce. However, it is argued by scholar Judith Tucker that the Ottoman Law of Family Rights did little to advance women's rights in the Ottoman Empire.

. ------ 17. ura Mare of ottoman ura Mare (German: Groscheuern; Hungarian: Nagycsr) is a commune located in Sibiu County, Transylvania, Romania. It is composed of two villages, Hamba and ura Mare. Both of these have fortified churches. ura Mare was first mentioned in 1332, and Hamba in 1337.

The church in ura Mare is a three-apse basilica. It was built in the 13th century (the tower is from around 1300), and fortified in 1495, apparently as a response to Ottoman attacks in 1493. The Romanesque basilica in Hamba was built in the 13th century, however, only fragments of the tower survived. The current building originates from the beginning of the 16th century.

Fortified church of ura Mare

Fortified church of Hamba

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